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How to Create a Java Atom

There are “atoms” in EO language, which are objects implemented by the runtime platform, not by a composition of other EO objects. Most notable examples of atoms are int.plus, float.times, and bool.while. Here is a quick intruction to creating your own atoms.

Let’s say, this is an EO program that uses your atom md5 (it builds an MD5 hash of a string):

+package org.example
+alias org.example.md5

[] > app
  QQ.io.stdout > @
      "Hello, world!"

Put it into src/main/eo/org/example directory and try to compile using our Maven Plugin:

$ mvn clean compile

The compilation will fail, because there is no atom definition yet. Create this file, with the atom and put it to src/main/eo/org/example/md5.eo:

+package org.example

[txt] > md5 /string

Then, create a Java implementation of this atom in src/main/java/EOorg/EOexample/EOmd5.java file:

package EOorg.EOexample;
import org.eolang.*;
import java.security.*;

@XmirObject(oname = "md5")
public class EOmd5 extends PhDefault {
  public EOmd5(final Phi sigma) {
    this.add("txt", new AtFree());
      new AtComposite(
        rho -> {
          String txt = new Param(rho, "txt").strong(String.class);
          byte[] bytes = txt.getBytes("UTF-8");
          byte[] hash = MessageDigest.getInstance("MD5").digest(bytes);
          return new Data.ToPhi(new String(hash));

Here, the EOorg.EOexample is the Java package that contains all atoms and objects of org.example EO package. The EO prefix is used in order to enable EO naming inside Java name space.

The class PhDefault is the parent of all Java atoms and I strongly recommend you use it too. You class should implement a single argument constructor with a parameter of type Phi. If you don’t have it, there will be a runtime error by reflection API: EO runtime won’t be able to instantiate your class. The argument sigma you should pass to the constructor of the parent class PhDefault.

Then, using this.add() you configure the attributes of the atom, which you can later use inside the code encapsulated by the instance of the AtComposite class.

The attibute you add with this.add("φ") is the “body” of the atom. It will be evaluated when the atom will be dataized.

Then, using the class Param you can get the value of any incoming attribute of your atom. The method strong() finds the attribute and dataizes it.

The new Data.ToPhi() is the best way to return the result back to EO.

The presence of @XmirObject annotation will help EO runtime to properly name your atom in the logs (you can omit this annotation).

Now, let’s create a unit test for the atom. Put this file into src/test/java/EOorg/EOexample/EOmd5Test.java:

package EOorg.EOeolang;
import org.eolang.*;
import static org.hamcrest.*;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

public final class EOmd5Test {
  public void calculatesHashString() {
      new Dataized(
        new PhWith(
          new EOmd5(Phi.Φ),
          new Data.ToPhi("Hello, world!")

Then, make an EO test for your atom:

+alias org.eolang.hamcrest.assert-that
+package org.example

[] > calculates-hash-code
  assert-that > @
      "Hello, world!"

Run them both using our Maven Plugin:

mvn clean test

That’s it.

You can find a good example of some atoms in the eo-files repository.